Where Do Americans Live?

In my last pair of posts, I provided what I believe to be the best available data on interstate migration since 1900. But, as many readers know, I'm currently doing the research for a Podcast on the history of migration in America. And that history begins a long time before 1900. So I started asking myself: just how far back can I take the population record? I know that I can't really do migration before 1900. But even population would be interesting, and could give an idea.

The result is that I found a whole panoply of sources on state-level populations stretching back to 1630. I'm not going to do a post outlining the data in as much detail as I did for the history of migration, because I myself use many summary sources, and because, as I'll show below, I've made some substantial transformations of the data.

When I combine all the extant data, I can build a more-or-less annual time series of population for every state from 1630 to 2014. Put another way, we're coming up on 400 years of approximately continuous measurement of state-level population. That's pretty impressive. And it gives us a large body of information with which to work.

Virginia Share, Texas Share, New York Share, Florida Share, California Share and Pennsylvania Share of Long Population History datacards

Page Title
Virginia Share
Texas Share
New York Share
Florida Share
California Share
Pennsylvania Share
163026.7%3.7%23.5%
163128.5%4.1%21.8%
163230.1%4.5%20.1%
163331.6%4.8%18.4%
163433.0%5.2%16.7%
163534.1%5.5%15.0%
163635.0%5.8%13.4%
163735.6%6.1%11.9%
163836.0%6.3%10.4%
163936.1%6.5%9.1%
164033.2%6.1%7.3%
164133.5%6.3%7.0%
164233.8%6.5%6.7%
164334.0%6.6%6.4%
164434.1%6.8%6.1%
164534.3%6.9%5.8%
164634.3%7.0%5.5%
164734.4%7.2%5.2%
164834.3%7.3%4.9%
164934.2%7.4%4.6%
165033.9%7.4%4.3%
165133.9%7.3%4.2%
165233.9%7.2%4.1%
165333.8%7.0%3.9%
165433.8%6.9%3.8%
165533.7%6.8%3.7%
165633.7%6.6%3.5%
165733.6%6.5%3.4%
165833.5%6.4%3.3%
165933.4%6.2%3.2%
166032.9%6.0%3.0%
166132.6%5.9%3.0%
166232.3%5.8%2.9%
166332.0%5.7%2.8%
166431.7%5.5%2.7%
166531.4%5.4%2.6%
166631.1%5.3%2.5%
166730.8%5.2%2.4%
166830.4%5.1%2.3%
166930.1%5.0%2.3%
167029.4%4.8%2.2%
167129.2%4.9%2.1%
167229.0%5.0%2.1%
167328.8%5.2%2.0%
167428.6%5.3%2.0%
167528.4%5.4%1.9%
167628.2%5.6%1.9%
167728.0%5.7%1.8%
167827.7%5.9%1.8%
167927.5%6.0%1.7%
168027.1%6.1%1.7%0.4%
168126.9%6.2%1.6%0.5%
168226.7%6.2%1.6%0.7%
168326.5%6.3%1.6%0.9%
168426.2%6.3%1.5%1.2%
168526.0%6.3%1.5%1.5%
168625.7%6.3%1.4%1.9%
168725.3%6.4%1.4%2.5%
168825.0%6.4%1.4%3.2%
168924.5%6.3%1.3%4.1%
169024.0%0.2%6.3%1.3%5.2%
169123.8%0.2%6.4%1.2%5.3%
169223.7%0.3%6.5%1.2%5.5%
169323.5%0.3%6.6%1.2%5.6%
169423.3%0.3%6.7%1.2%5.8%
169523.2%0.3%6.8%1.2%6.0%
169623.0%0.3%6.9%1.2%6.1%
169722.8%0.3%7.0%1.2%6.3%
169822.6%0.3%7.1%1.1%6.5%
169922.4%0.4%7.2%1.1%6.6%
170022.2%0.4%7.2%1.1%6.8%
170122.3%0.4%7.1%1.1%6.8%
170222.3%0.4%7.0%1.0%6.9%
170322.4%0.4%6.9%1.0%6.9%
170422.4%0.4%6.8%1.0%6.9%
170522.4%0.4%6.7%1.0%6.9%
170622.5%0.4%6.6%1.0%7.0%
170722.5%0.4%6.5%0.9%7.0%
170822.5%0.4%6.4%0.9%7.0%
170922.6%0.3%6.3%0.9%7.0%
171022.6%0.3%6.2%0.9%7.1%
171122.1%0.3%6.4%0.9%7.1%
171221.7%0.3%6.6%0.9%7.1%
171321.2%0.3%6.8%0.8%7.0%
171420.8%0.3%7.0%0.8%7.0%
171520.3%0.3%7.2%0.8%7.0%
171619.9%0.3%7.4%0.8%7.0%
171719.4%0.3%7.6%0.8%7.0%
171819.0%0.3%7.8%0.8%6.9%
171918.6%0.3%8.0%0.8%6.9%
172018.2%0.3%8.2%0.8%6.8%
172118.1%0.3%8.1%0.8%7.0%
172218.1%0.3%8.0%0.7%7.1%
172318.0%0.3%8.0%0.7%7.2%
172418.0%0.3%7.9%0.7%7.3%
172517.9%0.3%7.8%0.7%7.4%
172617.8%0.3%7.8%0.7%7.5%
172717.8%0.3%7.7%0.7%7.6%
172817.7%0.3%7.6%0.6%7.8%
172917.7%0.3%7.6%0.6%7.9%
173017.6%0.2%7.5%0.6%8.0%
173117.8%0.2%7.4%0.6%8.1%
173218.0%0.2%7.4%0.6%8.2%
173318.2%0.2%7.3%0.6%8.4%
173418.4%0.2%7.3%0.6%8.5%
173518.6%0.2%7.2%0.5%8.6%
173618.8%0.2%7.1%0.5%8.8%
173719.0%0.2%7.1%0.5%8.9%
173819.2%0.2%7.0%0.5%9.0%
173919.3%0.2%7.0%0.5%9.1%
174019.5%0.2%6.9%0.5%9.2%
174119.5%0.2%6.8%0.5%9.3%
174219.5%0.2%6.8%0.5%9.4%
174319.5%0.2%6.7%0.5%9.5%
174419.4%0.2%6.7%0.5%9.6%
174519.4%0.2%6.7%0.5%9.6%
174619.4%0.2%6.6%0.4%9.7%
174719.4%0.2%6.6%0.4%9.8%
174819.4%0.2%6.5%0.4%9.9%
174919.4%0.2%6.5%0.4%10.0%
175019.4%0.2%6.4%0.4%10.0%
175119.6%0.2%6.5%0.4%10.2%
175219.7%0.2%6.6%0.4%10.3%
175319.9%0.2%6.7%0.3%10.5%
175420.1%0.2%6.8%0.3%10.6%
175520.3%0.2%6.9%0.3%10.7%
175620.5%0.1%7.0%0.3%10.9%
175720.6%0.1%7.0%0.2%11.0%
175820.8%0.1%7.1%0.2%11.2%
175921.0%0.1%7.2%0.2%11.3%
176021.2%0.1%7.3%0.2%11.4%
176121.2%0.1%7.3%0.2%11.4%
176221.1%0.1%7.4%0.2%11.4%
176321.1%0.1%7.4%0.2%11.4%
176421.1%0.1%7.4%0.2%11.4%
176521.1%0.1%7.5%0.2%11.4%
176621.1%0.1%7.5%0.2%11.3%
176721.0%0.1%7.5%0.2%11.3%
176821.0%0.1%7.6%0.2%11.3%
176921.0%0.1%7.6%0.2%11.3%
177020.6%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.1%
177120.5%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.1%
177220.4%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.2%
177320.2%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.3%
177420.1%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.4%
177520.0%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.4%
177619.8%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.5%
177719.7%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.5%
177819.5%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.6%
177919.3%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.6%
178019.1%0.1%7.5%0.2%0.0%11.6%
178119.0%0.1%7.6%0.2%0.0%11.6%
178218.8%0.1%7.7%0.2%0.0%11.5%
178318.7%0.1%7.8%0.2%0.0%11.5%
178418.5%0.1%7.9%0.2%0.0%11.4%
178518.3%0.1%8.0%0.2%0.0%11.3%
178618.2%0.1%8.2%0.2%0.0%11.3%
178718.0%0.1%8.3%0.2%0.0%11.2%
178817.8%0.1%8.4%0.2%0.0%11.1%
178917.7%0.1%8.5%0.2%0.0%11.1%
179017.5%0.1%8.6%0.2%0.0%11.0%
179117.3%0.1%8.8%0.1%0.0%11.0%
179217.1%0.1%9.1%0.1%0.0%11.1%
179316.9%0.1%9.3%0.1%0.0%11.2%
179416.7%0.1%9.6%0.1%0.0%11.2%
179516.4%0.1%9.8%0.1%0.0%11.2%
179616.2%0.1%10.1%0.1%0.0%11.3%
179716.0%0.1%10.3%0.1%0.0%11.3%
179815.7%0.1%10.6%0.1%0.0%11.3%
179915.5%0.1%10.8%0.1%0.0%11.3%
180015.1%0.1%11.0%0.1%0.0%11.3%
180114.8%0.1%11.3%0.1%0.0%11.3%
180214.6%0.1%11.5%0.1%0.0%11.3%
180314.3%0.1%11.8%0.1%0.0%11.4%
180414.0%0.1%12.0%0.1%0.0%11.4%
180513.7%0.1%12.3%0.1%0.0%11.4%
180613.4%0.1%12.5%0.1%0.0%11.4%
180713.1%0.1%12.7%0.1%0.0%11.4%
180812.8%0.1%12.9%0.1%0.0%11.3%
180912.5%0.1%13.1%0.1%0.0%11.3%
181012.1%0.1%13.2%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181111.8%0.1%13.3%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181211.6%0.1%13.5%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181311.4%0.1%13.6%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181411.2%0.1%13.7%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181510.9%0.1%13.8%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181610.7%0.1%13.9%0.1%0.0%11.1%
181710.4%0.1%14.0%0.1%0.0%11.0%
181810.2%0.1%14.1%0.1%0.0%11.0%
18199.9%0.1%14.1%0.1%0.1%10.9%
18209.7%0.2%14.1%0.1%0.1%10.8%
18219.5%0.2%14.2%0.1%0.1%10.8%
18229.4%0.2%14.3%0.1%0.1%10.8%
18239.2%0.2%14.4%0.2%0.1%10.7%
18249.0%0.2%14.5%0.2%0.1%10.7%
18258.9%0.2%14.5%0.2%0.1%10.7%
18268.7%0.2%14.6%0.2%0.1%10.6%
18278.5%0.3%14.7%0.2%0.1%10.6%
18288.4%0.3%14.7%0.2%0.1%10.5%
18298.2%0.3%14.8%0.2%0.1%10.5%
18308.1%0.3%14.8%0.3%0.1%10.4%
18317.8%0.3%14.8%0.3%0.1%10.4%
18327.6%0.3%14.8%0.3%0.1%10.4%
18337.4%0.3%14.7%0.3%0.1%10.4%
18347.2%0.3%14.7%0.3%0.1%10.4%
18357.0%0.4%14.6%0.3%0.1%10.3%
18366.8%0.4%14.5%0.3%0.1%10.3%
18376.6%0.4%14.4%0.3%0.1%10.2%
18386.4%0.4%14.3%0.3%0.1%10.2%
18396.2%0.4%14.2%0.3%0.1%10.1%
18405.9%0.4%14.1%0.3%0.1%10.0%
18415.8%0.4%14.0%0.3%0.2%10.0%
18425.7%0.5%14.0%0.3%0.2%10.0%
18435.6%0.5%13.9%0.3%0.2%10.0%
18445.5%0.6%13.9%0.3%0.2%10.0%
18455.4%0.6%13.8%0.3%0.2%10.0%
18465.3%0.7%13.7%0.4%0.3%10.0%
18475.2%0.7%13.6%0.4%0.3%10.0%
18485.0%0.8%13.5%0.4%0.3%10.0%
18494.9%0.8%13.4%0.4%0.4%10.0%
18504.8%0.9%13.3%0.4%0.4%9.9%
18514.7%1.0%13.3%0.4%0.4%9.9%
18524.6%1.1%13.2%0.4%0.5%9.9%
18534.5%1.2%13.1%0.4%0.6%9.8%
18544.5%1.2%13.0%0.4%0.6%9.8%
18554.4%1.3%13.0%0.4%0.7%9.7%
18564.3%1.4%12.9%0.4%0.8%9.6%
18574.2%1.6%12.8%0.4%0.9%9.5%
18584.1%1.7%12.6%0.4%1.0%9.5%
18594.0%1.8%12.5%0.4%1.1%9.4%
18603.9%1.9%12.3%0.4%1.2%9.2%
18613.8%1.9%12.2%0.5%1.2%9.2%
18623.7%2.0%12.1%0.5%1.3%9.2%
18633.7%2.0%12.1%0.5%1.3%9.2%
18643.6%2.0%12.0%0.5%1.3%9.2%
18653.5%2.0%11.9%0.5%1.3%9.2%
18663.4%2.0%11.8%0.5%1.4%9.2%
18673.4%2.1%11.7%0.5%1.4%9.2%
18683.3%2.1%11.6%0.5%1.4%9.2%
18693.2%2.1%11.5%0.5%1.4%9.1%
18703.2%2.1%11.3%0.5%1.4%9.1%
18713.2%2.2%11.2%0.5%1.5%9.1%
18723.1%2.3%11.1%0.5%1.5%9.0%
18733.1%2.4%11.0%0.5%1.5%9.0%
18743.1%2.5%10.9%0.5%1.6%8.9%
18753.1%2.6%10.8%0.5%1.6%8.9%
18763.1%2.7%10.6%0.5%1.6%8.8%
18773.1%2.8%10.5%0.5%1.6%8.7%
18783.1%2.9%10.4%0.5%1.7%8.7%
18793.0%3.0%10.3%0.5%1.7%8.6%
18803.0%3.2%10.1%0.5%1.7%8.5%
18813.0%3.2%10.1%0.5%1.7%8.5%
18822.9%3.2%10.0%0.6%1.8%8.5%
18832.9%3.3%10.0%0.6%1.8%8.5%
18842.9%3.3%9.9%0.6%1.8%8.5%
18852.8%3.4%9.9%0.6%1.8%8.5%
18862.8%3.4%9.8%0.6%1.8%8.4%
18872.7%3.4%9.7%0.6%1.9%8.4%
18882.7%3.5%9.7%0.6%1.9%8.4%
18892.7%3.5%9.6%0.6%1.9%8.4%
18902.6%3.5%9.5%0.6%1.9%8.3%
18912.6%3.6%9.5%0.6%1.9%8.3%
18922.6%3.6%9.5%0.6%1.9%8.3%
18932.6%3.7%9.6%0.6%1.9%8.3%
18942.6%3.7%9.6%0.7%1.9%8.3%
18952.5%3.8%9.6%0.7%1.9%8.3%
18962.5%3.8%9.6%0.7%1.9%8.3%
18972.5%3.9%9.6%0.7%1.9%8.3%
18982.5%3.9%9.6%0.7%1.9%8.3%
18992.5%4.0%9.6%0.7%2.0%8.3%
19002.4%4.0%9.5%0.7%1.9%8.3%
19012.4%4.0%9.6%0.7%2.0%8.3%
19022.4%4.0%9.6%0.7%2.0%8.3%
19032.3%4.1%9.6%0.7%2.1%8.3%
19042.3%4.1%9.6%0.7%2.2%8.3%
19052.3%4.1%9.6%0.7%2.3%8.3%
19062.3%4.1%9.7%0.7%2.3%8.3%
19072.2%4.2%9.7%0.7%2.4%8.3%
19082.2%4.2%9.8%0.8%2.4%8.3%
19092.2%4.2%9.8%0.8%2.5%8.3%
19102.2%4.2%9.9%0.8%2.6%8.3%
19112.2%4.3%9.8%0.8%2.7%8.3%
19122.2%4.3%9.8%0.8%2.8%8.4%
19132.2%4.3%9.7%0.8%2.9%8.3%
19142.3%4.3%9.6%0.9%3.0%8.3%
19152.3%4.3%9.6%0.9%3.0%8.3%
19162.3%4.3%9.6%0.9%3.0%8.3%
19172.2%4.4%9.6%0.9%3.1%8.3%
19182.3%4.5%9.6%0.8%3.2%8.2%
19192.2%4.4%9.8%0.9%3.2%8.2%
19202.2%4.4%9.8%0.9%3.2%8.2%
19212.2%4.5%9.6%0.9%3.5%8.2%
19222.2%4.5%9.6%0.9%3.6%8.1%
19232.2%4.5%9.6%1.0%3.8%8.1%
19242.1%4.6%9.6%1.0%4.0%8.2%
19252.1%4.6%9.6%1.1%4.1%8.2%
19262.1%4.6%9.6%1.2%4.2%8.1%
19272.0%4.7%9.4%1.2%4.3%8.2%
19282.0%4.7%9.6%1.2%4.4%8.1%
19292.0%4.7%10.0%1.2%4.5%8.0%
19302.0%4.7%10.2%1.2%4.6%7.8%
19312.0%4.7%10.3%1.2%4.7%7.8%
19322.0%4.8%10.4%1.2%4.7%7.8%
19332.0%4.8%10.4%1.2%4.7%7.8%
19342.0%4.8%10.4%1.2%4.8%7.7%
19352.0%4.8%10.5%1.3%4.8%